Post-weaving: What are the stages of preparing carpets for markets?


Step-by-step rug finishing guide

Woven carpet weaving is one of the wonderful and unique arts that has a long history in the world of handicrafts, and the steps for producing handmade carpets are completely carried out by artists either entirely manually, or by machine after the automatic loom was discovered, and although this art involves a long process, However, the end result gives you stunning beauty and timeless pieces of art, some of which we enjoy in our homes, and others that are more ancient and more rare that we enjoy in the world's largest museums.

After the carpet is woven, a set of operations are performed to provide the best appearance of the carpet, which is called the finishing process. In this article, we will examine the different stages of the finishing process, from start to finish, to know how the carpet reaches its final appearance step by step, to decorate the spaces of our homes!

Stages of hand weaving carpets

In the beginning, before we get acquainted with the stages of finishing carpets, before preparing them for the markets, it is necessary to know what are the steps of weaving manual carpets, and weaving machine-made carpets alike. The following are the most important of these steps..

The stages of manual carpet weaving differ from one weaver to another, or from one workshop to another, according to the type of carpet (woven, knotted, tufted...etc.), and according to the materials used as well, but there is no doubt that there are common steps in this process, and weaving steps can be described The rug is handmade from scratch as follows:

Preparation of raw materials for weaving handmade carpets

The first step must be taken seriously, depending on the type of rug the weaver wants to weave and what he expects from the appearance of his rug, hand woven rugs are made using raw materials and tools, including fiber yarns (he can choose different types of fibers, and among the fibers that are used In manual carpet weaving, we mention silk threads, lint, wool, and cotton...) and carpet looms, combs, hooks, etc..., and the type of fiber used varies according to the quantity of carpets, the type of design, and the loom, for example, in weaving silk carpets, silk is used in the warp and weft yarn We also use materials such as cotton, wool, and silk for warp or weft threads. Also, cotton is used with different knots, both thin and thick. (Learn more about carpet weaving tools and materials in this article: Hand Carpet Weaving Secrets: Tools and Materials )

spinning process

The first stage of carpet preparation and weaving is spinning, and spinning means producing a thread from raw fibers, and the longer and straighter this series is, the higher quality threads will be produced.

Yarn of any sex must be spun to prepare for weaving. In ancient times, cotton or wool and linen threads were spun with hand spindles and wheels. Spinning the thread makes it durable because, firstly, fluff is removed during spinning, and secondly, the fibers show greater resistance to impact and weight And texture and have more strength, and the threads are woven with different numbers, the more the number of threads, the greater the amount of wrapping that we give to the thread, and these threads are known to the weavers with numbers, as each thread carries a number according to its strength, for example, thread No. 10 contains a coarser texture than Thread No. 15, and these threads are made from natural fibers such as cotton, wool, silk, or synthetic fibers such as polyester, viscose, or polypropylene, and sometimes some fibers are heat-set to give less lint after weaving, and sometimes spinning the thread causes the carpet to not contain much Lint or always contain lint.

After spinning all kinds of yarns, it is time to dye them. Dyeing the yarns makes it possible to use different colors in the weaving, and the colors of these yarns appear evident while inserting them into the carpet, for example, a carpet of 700 combs in eight colors, that is, the number of colors of the fibers of this carpet is 8, The colored yarns are wrapped around special spindles and sent to the weaving department after the dyeing process.

Taking the fiber to dyeing

Among the stages of hand-woven carpet production, dyeing is one of the first stages. After obtaining the appropriate fibers for the carpets he wants, the weaver needs to dye the fibers in the colors of his choice (of course, at present the carpet weaver usually does not participate in the dyeing process, but this step is considered Part of the process of making a handwoven rug, for this, he needs to visit a dyer. At first glance, dyeing may seem like a simple task, but it is not. Dyeing is also a very professional and specialized work.

The type of material used in the rug is the determining factor for the final result, so the quality of the wool is as important as the fastness of the dye. Traditional weavers used to dye the sheep’s wool themselves, after washing, soaking, drying, combing and spinning it in the traditional way by hand. The dyeing technique varies from place to place and so do the plants. Natural color used in the industry.

Traditionally, raw natural colors from various plants and insects are used in the preparation of the dye. To give color stability minerals are used in combination with natural dyes, for example, using dried or fresh pomegranate peel gives a yellow colour, and by combining pomegranate with stabilizers such as metal, the color is obtained. Yellow to brown and black. (Discover more about plant-based dyes in this article: Handmade Carpet Dyes: A Colorful World.)

How is the dyeing process naturally and chemically?

In dyeing, professionals dye yarns with dyeing fabrics mainly of plant origin, following traditional dyeing techniques that are centuries old, for example for the preparation of the seven primary colors (red, green, yellow, black, dark blue, white and purple) and their dyes used in the manufacture of carpets, professional dyers use Green walnut shells, pomegranate peel, indigo plant, mulberry leaves, quince and walnut plants, madder roots, to obtain the yellow color and its shades, they use onion peels, mulberry leaves harvested in late autumn, etc. At the end of the yarn dyeing process, the dyer adds salt or Alum or vinegar is added to the dye solution to increase color intensity, strength and durability, then the dyed threads are pressed and dried with special techniques.

As for the beginning of the use of industrial dyes, this type of dye appeared in the middle of the nineteenth century, and it was discovered by William Henry Perkin in England, where he used aniline extracted from coal tar (resulting from the destructive distillation of materials of organic origin such as wood, peat and coal), to dye Wool, aniline-based dyes were introduced very quickly in Turkey and Persia around 1870, and although they were very successful due to their low cost and brilliance, these aniline-based dyes were very unstable; It loses its luster and deteriorates quickly (yellow to greenish-brown, red to violet, blue to gray-brown), and today, aniline-based dyes are no longer used for dyeing wool.

The most common dyes for dyeing wool are chrome dyes, which were developed in Europe in the 1920s. Their properties are excellent: they are more stable than most natural dyes, they do not drip, they resist light well and they do not fade to wool, and their use has spread widely in all countries where Carpets are made there.

Choosing the right design

Depending on the taste of the weaver or the owner of the carpet, the appropriate design should be chosen for the texture of the hand-woven carpet. Apart from the beauty of the design and its visual features, some designs are difficult to embellish. If the weaver chooses a design that he cannot weave the carpet according to, either he will encounter problems in the middle of the carpet weaving process. Or the thing he will weave will not resemble his design and pattern!

Equipping the necessary tools for weaving handmade carpets

Fiber and design are the two main materials for weaving a hand-woven carpet, but the weaver needs to prepare other tools to weave the carpet, and choosing the appropriate rug or carpet weaving tools is one of the important points that he must pay much attention to. The convenience it provides, if the weaver is not comfortable with his carpet weaving equipment, he will get bored and not enjoy carpet weaving, and this problem will also affect the quality of his work.

Preparing the carpet on the loom (carpet installation)

The installation of a rug is a specialized work that must be done by an expert carefully. Starting to weave a hand-woven rug means that the weaver spends a lot of time with the rug loom during the day. Incorrect installation and improper rugs can cause physical harm to him.

Once the design is determined, a frame called a loom is set up and the fibers needed to weave a new rug are woven onto it. The yarn columns (called the warps) are stretched vertically or horizontally depending on the type of loom. The warps are usually made of cotton, which provides an ideal surface for a flat and straight rug. The warp is secured by arranging horizontal rows called wefts (usually made of cotton, wool or silk).

Once the loom is in place, the design can begin to be illustrated by the master weaver to the weavers (if more than one weaver will be working on the rug), this may or may not happen depending on the size of the rug and knowledge of the design by the weavers themselves, and in general, if The woven rug is small and has been woven many times by a family of weavers, perusal of the design is not required, these weavers have already preserved the design in scrolls from their memory, this is common in tribal rug designs often passed down from generation to generation, from master to the student.

However, if the design is unfamiliar to the weavers or we are going to make a medium or even large sized rug, the assistance of the master weaver will be needed to describe the design, in some Asian villages and tribes the master weaver is called the master, and the master is the one who leads the weavers during Singing, he speaks not to any particular weaver, but to everyone at the same time, and in some cases the master weaver memorizes the rug so well that he needs no design, and uses his memory to guide the weavers, and in the latter case, the teaching becomes more than a reference guide, Generally, in a warm environment, to weave a carpet on a vertical loom, the weavers sit on their knees facing the loom and start weaving.

Start weaving

Weaving is one of the important initial stages of carpet weaving. This work is also very specialized and must be done by an expert. Any error in the weft can waste his efforts on carpet weaving. Weavers have some tricks and techniques that help them achieve the best results at this stage.

It may be difficult for beginners to weave rugs at first, but it is usually difficult to start with anything, and with the passage of time and gaining more experience in this field, their skills will increase and the difficulties they will face in weaving handwoven rugs will decrease.

Hand-woven rugs are often called "flat-woven" because they are flat and have no pile, in fact, it means that the rug has no knots, and these types of rugs, depending on their place of origin, are also called kilims, douri, and tapestries because they are flat-woven, and in the rug Flat woven, the weft colored threads are woven through the warp to create the pattern, and are woven like a "basket", making the top and bottom symmetrical and therefore reversible.

The knot industry

Weaving a hand-knotted rug requires a lot of skill and often a lot of time. The quality and cost of a hand-knotted rug is often determined by the number of knots per square inch. In this case, higher density means better quality. An intricate pattern may require very dense knots, which It can take a long time, on average, a weaver can tie about 10,000 knots per day, so you can imagine how long it can take to make a rug, especially if it is large, and the cost of a hand-knotted rug also takes into account the production time, which is usually longer Thus, it is more expensive than handmade carpets.

When the rug is woven by hand, the weaver ties a continuous thread around it, and after making about ten wefts, the weaver is ready to begin the greater part of the work, and with a piece of wool or silk, he takes one or two chains in the same row and ties a knot about them, and the weaver works delicately, knot by knot , until the pattern is complete, and manual knitting is the most complex and arduous method in weaving rugs currently used, and among the most important types of knots most used in the past centuries in the production of hand-knotted carpets are the Persian knot, the Turkish knot, the Tibetan knot, or the mixed knot, which combines Two knots, two of these and that.

Pull the rug

After the completion of all stages of manual carpet production, the carpet is pulled (downloaded) from the carpet hanger. Of course, this work requires the accuracy and experience of the carpet weaving artist as well. For this purpose, it is not possible to cut all the carpet threads at once; Because it may cause the carpet to deform and form wrinkles, which will waste all the hard work of the carpet weavers. To pull the carpet, the pile is first divided into several different parts, and then each part is patiently cut with scissors until there are no wrinkles in the carpet.

Soften the carpet

Once the weave is complete and removed from the loom we come to the shaving process. During cutting, unnecessary fibers are removed and the knots that appear on the back of the carpet are fixed for smoothness. For this, the carpet is brought to a well flat surface and specially designed long scissors are used to start the cutting process. And the hand of the weaver moves gently and efficiently over the carpet for several days, and this is to obtain all the patterns and colors that are distinct, clear and consistent with the design, and this is after smoothing the level of the pile, which improves the clarity and originality of the graphics.

*There is another step in the carpet production process, and it is very important, but not most weavers use it. After processing the surface of the carpet, which becomes homogeneous and shiny, which is a very effective step in the final quality of the carpet, the next step comes, where it is the turn of the coating, by coating the surface The backing of the rug is coated with special resins and adhesives to hold the woven knots in place.

Hand beaten carpet

After the delicate stage of manually weaving the carpet is over, it is time to get rid of the dust or fluff stuck in the carpet. After finishing the hand-woven carpet, one of the basic finishing stages in the handmade carpet comes, which is hitting the carpet with a stick, where the weavers, after removing the carpet from the loom, hit it with a stick. Of course, the meaning of the beating is not to exhaust the carpet by beating, but to shake it off, and modify its appearance, which is likely to be hooked. At this stage, the carpet is polished so that it becomes a complete, beautiful and suitable carpet to start using.

Automatic carpet weaving

It is possible to obtain durable and high-quality automatic carpets, which are close in quality to manual carpets. The automatic carpet weaving process also passes through general stages, including spinning, weaving, and finishing. The following are the most important steps for automatic carpet weaving in detail:

Spinning and weaving carpets automatically

The first step in carpet production is spinning and preparing the threads, which we will use to make the warp and weft, as each carpet consists of about 80% of the warp thread and 12% of the weft thread, and the rest is made of the chain threads that we see in the appearance of the carpet and it is made of acrylic, wool and polyester and polypropylene, or a mixture thereof, and the process of preparing and dyeing the fibers is one of the most important spinning steps, which we will give a brief description of.

The raw fibers, which are brought to the factory in the form of long strands, are made into compressed and stretched bundles after being oiled and passed through machines, and the monolayer fibers are wound around bobbins for steaming and after swelling and cooling (so that the thread maintains its complex shape), it is transported to weaving machine.

You may have noticed that when buying a carpet, it is recommended to make sure that the thermal fibers are used in the machine carpets, so that you can choose a carpet with less fluff, and the heat setting process means that the fibers are treated with water vapor by spinning machines under a certain temperature in order to produce woven yarns, Machine-made carpets made of heat-setting yarns are more durable, with much less lint, softer and more convenient to use, more heat-resistant and soil-absorbing, and in general, their fibers are fixed for a long time: The fibers used in machine-made carpets are divided into two categories, Continuous yarn and partial yarn, these yarns vary in length, and the price of "continuous bulk fiber" is said to be low compared to other machine-made carpet fibers, and machine-woven continuous yarn carpets have a very narrow weft and no fluff at all.

Automatic yarn dyeing

In the dyeing stage, we will find many methods according to the capabilities of the dyeing workshop, for example, 227-455 kg of prepared and spun fibers are placed in basins or tanks under air pressure, where the desired color is spread in the fibers, or in another way, the fibers or yarn coils pass over successively through the coating troughs to exactly match the color required, and the third method of dyeing the threads is to form the threads and then the hot dye is forced to flow over the forms of the threads to dye them, and also, in another method, the threads are pressed through colored printing rollers, while in a last method the threads are woven Then the threads are mixed with dyes before being unwound, and regardless of the method of dyeing, the threads are evaporated in the next step, then washed and dried to be ready for knitting.

After preparing the woven yarns and dyeing them in the previous stage, the weaving stage comes, and the yarns are placed in the bobbin behind the automatic carpet and inserted into the field by means of a nylon tube equipped with knitting needles, and in this way a root or base of the carpet is made, and weaving operations are carried out by very fast machines and several thousand of needles, and thus the carpet weaving speed is high, and the weaving steps are similar in all types of carpets, designs and colors, we will talk about that in detail as follows:

Automatic carpet weaving stage

At the back of the carpet loom there is a motorized bobbin where the threads are placed and fed by a nylon tube attached to the knitting needle, the needle is inserted into the field, thus the thread is inserted into the loop, the penetration depth of the needle into the field is controlled by electro-optical sensors, and can Also control the height of the loop in the same way, the hook or clip alternately grabs and releases the knot, the needle moves in the opposite direction, the back side or the back of the rug goes forward and the needle repeats its work again, also to cut the threads, there is a clip on the other side, and it is equipped with a blade that starts the work of scissors With knot cutting, this weaving process is carried out by several thousand needles and several thousand rows are woven every minute, so the loom can produce several hundred square meters of carpet per day.

Dye the finished rug

In some workshops, this method of dyeing is carried out on a completely ready-made carpet. If the threads have not been dyed in the previous steps, it is called integrated carpet dyeing. At this stage, several standard carpet panels are connected together, and then the long carpet panel of the machine is placed inside the tub. Then the weavers fill the pond with water, heat it, and dissolve the chemicals in it, then this mixture is boiled by increasing the heat for 4 hours. Putting these long carpet panels under the tubes that spread the colors on it, after the machine carpet is dyed, the carpet is placed under steam to fix the color, and in the next part, the excess color is washed off, then the carpet is dried and rolled into a tube shape.

There are other methods for dyeing ready-made and machine-made carpets. In this method, the white carpet is passed under the sheets that have holes and slits in the shape of the desired designs and decorations for the weaver or customers, and the desired colors are sprayed through the screen holes, then the carpet is pushed forward 91 cm It is placed under another screen of different colors and patterns, and in this method, the raw carpet is dyed up to eight times.

There is another form of dyeing the printed carpet with a machine, in a way that makes them pass the raw carpet under rollers that have relief patterns, and parts of these rollers are marked with a design that presses the required color on the carpet, and each roller has different patterns that press the required colors, and after dyeing, the printed carpet is placed By machine under steam, as in the previous method, the excess colors are washed off, then the carpet is dried and delivered to the final part of production.

Separation of carpet texture

At this stage of automatic carpet weaving, two carpets are woven together in the form of a lower weave and an upper weave, in one machine, and in the end they are separated from each other with a special blade, and among the machines specialized in automatic carpet weaving, we can mention Texima and Vandeville machines CRX, ASR, VTR and HCP.

After the completion of weaving and production, the carpet is made in the form of tubes, and it is placed in special ovens under steam pressure and brushed to remove excess lint. In the ventilation stage, the moisture of the carpet is completely removed to prevent it from rotting. Finally, it is packed with cloth or plastic bags and sent to market, and at this point, the machine-made carpet is ready for use.

We will learn more about these stages in the next part of the article.

Stages of carpet finishing after weaving

After getting acquainted with the methods of weaving carpets manually, and weaving carpets automatically, we will now discover the complete and detailed method for the finishing stage of the carpet after the final weaving process..

After completing the weaving, the carpet will be in a raw state, and it will not be usable until it goes through other stages, and these stages are called finishing and completing the carpet, and the steps of the completion and finishing process include many stages, including trimming, polishing, cleaning, fumigation, and others..

Lint carpet finishing

Trimming excess lint from carpets, which is usually done after the completion of carpet weaving, is called carpet polishing or lint removal, and this stage has many benefits for carpets, and it has different ways to do it, and a specific time also to perform it on carpets, and the trimming process takes place in Two different times, or sometimes in several stages, that is, after each monitoring and evaluation process!

The carpet can be finished twice during and after the completion of the carpet weaving. Carpet polishing during weaving has the advantage that it identifies the carpet errors and thus the weaver can correct these errors. The design and pattern of the carpet will be very clear, and the weaving method can have a link with the defects of the carpet that are identified. In time when pruning, and then it can be repaired.

* In handmade carpets, some people polish carpets using old shavers. Note that using a hair trimmer to remove carpet pile is only suitable for small sized carpets (200 cm or less in length).

How is the finishing process done?

Carpet finishing is an art that many people don't know, the finishing process is mostly done by hand, because the finishing machine leaves marks on the carpet and removes the lint of the carpet, the master finisher spins the carpet back and finishes the carpet by hand using only big scissors, if the carpet pile is too long, the carpet will look wispy , and the pattern of the carpet will be inconspicuous and will not be seen well, and on the contrary, if the pile of the carpet is too short, the spaces and wefts between the knotted rows will attract attention, and this not only harms the beauty of the carpet, but also reduces its durability and life, and the carpet is finished and covered Hand-woven in two ways: in some areas, after weaving 2 to 4 rows, additional sections of thread are cut with scissors, but in other areas, after finishing the carpet weaving, the finishing stage is done with electric scissors and finished.

Finishing the carpet during weaving has a special advantage over the second method, which is that it is possible to notice and correct any error in weaving, so there can be less errors in weaving and any other problems such as burrs, design breaks, etc., as they are identified and corrected in time, And in the event that the carpet is not polished during weaving, due to the unclear design and pattern, the defects of the carpet cannot be seen and repaired, and after the carpet is finished and polished, if the carpet has errors through texture, it is almost impossible to repair it sometimes.

Polishing makes the design of the carpet more beautiful and is performed manually and automatically. In the manual method, special polishing scissors are used. In the machine method, special electric lathes are used for polishing operations. For a long time in some carpet weaving centers, the finishing process is carried out with special electric machines.

Of course, it goes without saying that the carpet should be polished not only after the carpet has been woven, but also in cases where the freshness of the carpet diminishes over time as a result of use, sitting, standing on it, etc., when the carpet becomes old and is no longer as attractive as before, especially when Washing carpets several times in an inappropriate way (whether in the method of washing carpets or in detergents and carpet washing tools), so carpet polishing is a solution to restore the freshness and beauty of the carpet, and it is better to know that carpet polishing in these cases is suitable for old carpets and not for new carpets, because with polishing Your carpet will become thinner over time.

As we mentioned earlier, there are two types of carpet pile finishing, manual finishing, and machine finishing:

Hand finished carpet

In some types of carpets, due to the type of fibers, the density of the fabric or its size, it cannot be polished with a machine, so it must be finished with a manual razor blade, which requires high skill and precision. In this way, the finishing expert, using manual razors or special scissors, Finishing work on the surface of the rug, and these blades and shears have different types and vary according to the texture and quality of the rug. Basically, fine woven rugs are finished by hand.

Machine carpet finishing

Machine carpet polishing is that the machines perform the tasks of manual razors or polishing scissors of the first method, and the construction of this machine includes a sharp blade (first blade) and a comb (flat blade) at the front of the work and a lint-collecting bag arranged at the end, as the comb makes the surface The carpet is smooth and uniform, and the scissors also cut off the excess lint. In addition, this machine has two electric dynamos, one of which is connected to the tube blade through a hose tube with a spring inside, and the other dynamo is connected to the lint bag through another tube. As a result of the dynamo, It first rotates and picks up the extra length of the piles on the surface of the carpet, the flat blade (shoulder) is stable and helps straighten the long threads of the surface of the carpet to shorten them, when the second dynamo starts working, the suction that takes place, collects the accumulated lint inside the collection bag.

Finishing the carpet

One of the types of carpet final finishes is the embossed carpet finish, which is done with special scissors (thread scissors) and this type of finish creates edges for the carpet, which gives a special beauty to the carpet in terms of dimensions and gives the design an aesthetic appearance. It is necessary to ensure that during the weaving process and after the completion of weaving Carpets, the polishing process must be done by a professional and expert in this field, because excessive polishing means cutting the pile of the carpet excessively, and the movement of the hand can affect the beauty and value of the carpet.

*Thanks to the structure and design of weaving machines, carpets are woven from the back to the front, and on the back of the carpet, after leaving the weaving machine, we will see the carpet threads spread irregularly, and these irregular threads must be separated from the back of the carpet, for this purpose, and to perform this process, it helps Back of the machine In this arranging process, there are machines that contain several cutting blades in their structure. With the help of these blades, the threads on the back of the carpet are removed and cut to give the carpet a regular appearance from the front and the back.

cleaning process

After the rug is cut, it is washed to remove any particles of detergent, dirt, and thread accumulated during weaving and to give the finished rug a shine. The rug is laid flat on the floor, cold water is poured over it, and the rug washers then use a wooden plank, sharpened on one edge, to push The water runs through the pile (fibers) of the carpet. This action helps remove impurities that have been picked up during the cutting process. In many areas, certain chemicals are added to the water when cleaning the carpet.

This chemical wash, also called a reduction bath, removes the short hair fibers that stick in the carpet, and it also lightens the color tone of the carpet. Grades achieved only after years of use, and chemical washing can be done in the country where the rug is manufactured or at a regional collection center. 

For automatic cleaning

After going through the trimming stage, the carpet cleaning process must be done, because there will be a lot of lint, threads, and fibers on both sides of the carpet, in addition to that lint that covers the surface of the carpet, which is considered carpet waste, and for this purpose it is placed inside the cleaning machine, and in the cleaning machine , There are many scrapers as well as brushes that move back and forth to clean the surface of the carpet and cut and remove the excess fibers above the main surface, until the threads and lint stuck to the carpet are removed, through the other part of the cleaning machine that sucks out the dirty water, which works like a vacuum cleaner, All waste will be removed from the carpet.

After the end of this stage, the carpet reaches a state in which all its parts are clear. If any part of it is defective, it can be identified after this stage.

drying stage

Once the washing is finished, the carpet is exposed to the sun until it is completely dry, and the carpet is placed outside in a large yard on clean river rocks, or in some cases it is hung to dry on pegs and ropes, and the reason for exposing the carpet to the sun instead of drying it inside the knitting workshop, Or, for example, in a warm room, is that sunlight helps new carpets fix their colors, so when natural dyes are used to dye the fibers, after exposing them to sunlight gives the best result, and the carpet must dry completely at the same rate so as not to warp.

In some workshops, special suction devices and brooms are used to completely remove moisture from the carpet, in addition to placing it in a warm room with fans or air conditioners that help in quick drying, but as we mentioned, drying under the sun is the best option.

The fumigation step in completing the rug

Some of the carpet’s passage through the drying stage and the drying chamber enters directly into the fumigation section, and in this part, the carpet is passed over large cylinders called “tambourines”, the diameter of which is about 2.5 meters and a length of about 4 meters, and this large cylinder is heated with steam, and the task of the tambourine, which It works like a large steam iron, is to press the cleaning roller against the back of the carpet into the texture of the carpet until it dries, this action causes the back of the carpet to take on lower elevations of the waxed fabric and makes it look more natural.

In addition, it can be said that steaming the carpet will remove the possible creases of the carpet. Also, at this stage, a kind of heat-fixing is done on the carpet fibers. In this way, the carpet fibers in normal condition will look more beautiful to customers. After steaming, the carpet goes through the dryer. Again, with this, the water vapor remaining between the fibers of the carpet is removed and the carpet is completely dried.

For automatic carpets...

After the carpet is completely dry, the carpet is trimmed or cut again, and the cutting part, which is at the end of the machine, does the final finishing of the carpet. The carpet that is passed through the machine must pass through this stage. Smooth surface, this is necessary, at this stage, a very detailed but partial trimming of the carpet is done, for which there are very strong suction cups in this machine, these suction cups collect the lint of the cut fibers from the surface of the carpet, in this way, the carpet coming out of part Trimming at the end of the machine will have a very uniform, velvety and clean surface.

After doing this process, it is time to remove the short, irregular piles and threads on the back of the carpet as well, which are also cut by the combs in the back cleaning machine and then completely removed from the back of the carpet, and by carrying out the mentioned steps, the entire surface behind the carpet will be smooth And unified too.

At this stage, and after going through the previous steps, it is time to trim the carpet again, and after this stage, the height of the carpet surface must be similar in all parts and areas, and the carpet must have the same size in all areas. By doing this step, the carpet has a very regular and uniform appearance, and when If you touch or step on the rug, all the dots will be the same size.

Turning or cutting the carpet will be a multi-step process, although the frequency of the steps will depend on the irregularity of the carpet bed height, and the more uneven the existing carpet and the greater the difference in height compared to other parts of the carpet, the more often the cutting step should be done.

After completing this stage, very powerful machines similar to the function of a vacuum cleaner must be used to remove the lint and threads resulting from cutting carpets every time to clean the carpets completely.

Finishing the edges of the rug

The side parts or the waxed weave of the two sides of the machine-made carpet is a kind of woven fiber without edges. Therefore, the pile threads on the sides of the carpet can be easily pulled, and thus the edge threads will also follow. In order to solve this problem and repair the longitudinal sides of the carpet, the sides of the carpet are sewn or stretched, In the automated carpet finishing industry, this work is also known as the "zigzag process".

A zigzag machine is used to zigzag the edges of a carpet, and a zigzag machine is a type of sewing machine that uses two types of threads at the same time. One of these threads is the zigzag thread, which is the same as the carpet thread. This thread has the same color and specification as the outer edges of the carpet. This thread By sewing the bottom and top edge of the tarpaulin together in a zigzag pattern or back and forth needle movements of 1 to 1/5 cm, the other thread is sewing thread, which is much stronger, and the job of sewing thread is to strengthen the zigzag edge of the rug, usually it is the sewing thread used to finish the rug White in color and made of polyester or cotton and polyester.

The zigzag machine is located on the edge of the carpet table. The carpet table is a metal table used to move the carpet easily from one stage to the next. Normally, after a zigzag line is completed on one side of the carpet, the carpet is turned over and the other side is zigzag. Of course, in some workshops, it is Using two winding machines on both sides of the table, this increases winding process speed and production efficiency.

Adding a leather strip on both sides of the motorized carpet

In some workshops, when the longitudinal edges of the carpet are zigzag, the leather strip is also sewn under the edges of the carpet, and the purpose of adding the leather strip is to prevent the carpet from slipping on the ceramics, and preventing damage to the edges of the carpet is another advantage of this work. The use of this leather tape in recent years.

In the art of hand-woven carpets, some carpets are woven with natural leather, and artificial leather with a width of 3 to 4 cm is used for the sides of the carpet, and the colors used in the leather bands on the sides of the carpet are usually light brown or garlic green.

The leather is sewn to the sides of the rug at the same time as the zigzag sides, for this purpose the leather sides are placed together with the long edges of the tarpaulin and entered into the zigzag machine together.

Separate the carpet after the finishing is done

All kinds of carpets pass through the finishing line in the form of interconnected rolls, so, at the end of the finishing line, the tarpaulin or the bonding fabric between the carpets is cut off, and the carpets are separated one by one, and the tarpaulin between two carpets, which connects two consecutive carpets, has a length of 5 And 10 cm, and the waxed fabric is cut between two successive carpets so that at least 2 to 3 cm of waxed fabric remains at the beginning and end of each carpet, and this tissue is used in the next step to root the carpet.

carpet rooting

In the weaving of hand-woven carpets, after the completion of the carpet-weaving stage, the weavers cut the ends of the piles attached to the loom, as a result, the woven carpet is separated, and the cut threads in the hand-woven carpet become part of the carpet weaving, and the hand-woven carpet weavers weave these threads together In a chain to add more beauty, or to make a pretty bow.

In the machine-made carpet, after completing the above-mentioned steps, a process called “rooting” is performed. At this stage, the prepared roots covered with fringes are sewn onto the waxed fabric for the beginning and end of the carpet with a rooting machine. This work increases the beauty of the carpet and strengthens the threads of the transverse sides of the carpet. In this way, the warp and weft threads are prevented from coming out of the carpet fabric.

After the carpet is rooted and the quality of the carpet texture is monitored, the ready-made carpet is sent by the specialized expert for monitoring. The carpet finishing process plays a big role in affecting the beauty and quality of the carpet, so one of the factors affecting the price of the carpet is its final quality.

Improve appearance

This stage is very important and crucial, because the carpet is in a state in which all its areas are very clear and its surface is completely smooth, and the finishing process has actually ended, so carpet weavers and experts can easily find any part of the carpet that has a problem and then perform the cleaning process to fix it.

In order to correctly and accurately identify carpet defects, such as the presence of many veins in the carpet, two colors of the carpet texture, poor texture, fractures, a broken pattern in the carpet, or the unevenness of the carpet, the carpet must be placed inside the special device of the cleaning machine, So this device can do the diagnosis well.

The function of this device is that it puts the carpet on an inclined surface, and then the experts can shake the carpet in any direction to see all parts of the carpet with the help of the light of the device to identify and find any problem and try to fix it.

Final preparation of the rug

After completing the stage of separating the carpet from the finishing stage, and implementing all the above-mentioned steps, we reach the final stage of cutting and finishing the carpet. At this stage, the final examination of the cutting must be done by skilled specialists several times in succession. After that, the final fumigation process of the cutting must take place. And if some parts of the carpet are uneven after completing this step, the steps related to cutting or trimming the carpet must be repeated again.

Then, when the carpet reaches the ideal pile height, it should be cleaned by cleaning devices with very strong suction, and all the steps mentioned during the production of the high-quality machine-made carpet will be carried out by skilled and expert people in reliable carpet factories, so that the carpet that reaches Customers are free from any problems or defects.

Final examination

And since the process of weaving carpets is done by machines, and human hands do not interfere during weaving, there is a possibility of many defects, and in this case, despite these circumstances, it is necessary to carry out all the steps related to weaving, and the finishing of the carpet must be done in an accurate manner.

** It is necessary for the carpet to be checked frequently at every stage of the process, and this requires finding any errors, no matter how small in the model, which will be corrected by a specific team, and it is necessary that each carpet is also stretched to ensure that it conforms to the measurements Lines are checked to make sure they are the way they are supposed to be, and cleaned after each operation.


After examining the woven carpet and making sure that it is free of any defects, the process of packing and shipping begins for buyers abroad or inside, and it is important to note that the packaging is not always the same and varies from one supplier to another, however, most carpet suppliers will provide double-layer packaging, in other words Once the rug has been rolled, it is first wrapped in plastic (usually clear polyethylene) followed by a more rigid outer layer of coarse or white cloth. Experience, the rug is wrapped with cardboard center backing or plastic tube to prevent wrinkling or bending during transportation by land, sea or air.

What are the defects that affect the carpet during weaving and finishing?

A defect is damage and complications that occur on the carpet and its materials as a result of damage and pests during the weaving process or during the finishing process or even before them. These defects not only reduce the beauty and natural condition of the carpet, but also reduce its full efficiency, life and functions. These defects may also occur during the preparation Raw materials, carpet weaving, or during the final stages such as transportation or after use, the following are some of the most important defects known in the world of hand and machine carpet industry:

The design is not original

If the carpet is woven from designs prepared by foreign and unknown standards, then it is said that this “rug is not original.” That is, if the design of the carpet is not inspired by ethnic and cultural characteristics, as well as customs and traditions, and the nature of people’s lives, then the design is called non-original. Commercial, especially the imported side, it will be less valuable and lower in price, and for handmade carpet weavers, this is considered a defect in the carpet industry.

Low quality texture

The woven carpet may not have a high-quality feel for many reasons, for example, the fiber scale does not match the pattern, or there are defective carpet weaving tools that damage the texture of the carpet, or the inaccuracy of weaving and weft and other steps will reduce the quality of the woven carpet.

Increase and decrease in height

Increasing or decreasing the length of the carpet according to the carpet catalog or according to the main design is considered a defect, and in this defect, the flowers and patterns appear longer or narrower, and the carpet becomes curved, and this can happen for many reasons, so the weaver needs to find out the reason and then fix it.

If the problem is caused by a high or low density of rows (i.e. the yarns of the rows are too close together or too far apart), the weaver must try to line up the rows, which is usually very difficult after starting weaving, and it is best to do this immediately after Discovering the defect so that it does not fall into a problem later causes damage to the complete appearance of the carpet.

Sometimes, due to the thickness or thinness of the woolen threads or fibers, it happens that the weaver has to choose the appropriate thickness of the woolen threads, and he can also slightly increase the thickness of the woolen threads in the part that has a hollow state, and another reason for this problem is to stretch the thin weft of the carpet, which lead to precipitation.

warp in the carpet

The warp in the weave is one of the defects of the carpet, which may be caused by excessive beating of the initial weave of the carpet, or the use of poor-quality carpet weaving looms or machines, as well as the heterogeneity of the pile, and the looseness or hardness of most of its parts compared to other parts, and all of this creates a defect And it leads to a warp in the appearance and shape of the manufactured carpet, which also includes the cavity (outward or inward from the middle) or as it is called in English “swording”, (meaning that it has a curve similar to the curvature of the sword), and so on.

 There are holes in the carpet

 The hole is another defect in the carpet, and it often occurs in hand-woven carpets, if one of the four corners of the carpet is different from the rest of the other corners, so to speak, the carpet is said to have a hole in the language of weavers, which is the presence of a crooked tip that is slightly longer than the other corners in terms of width or length, and this defect may be caused by loose threads or inaccuracies when cutting and separating the woven rug from the loom, or when the rug is pulled down improperly by apprentice or unprofessional weavers.

pattern confusion

If the warp or weft is not done uniformly throughout the weaving, or if the weaving is not in accordance with the pattern, at the end of the weaving work, we will notice a defect called pattern confusion, as the flower may be in one part of the carpet with a difference in the same The flower and its counterparts are in another part of the carpet, and this defect is caused by several factors; Such as the inaccuracy of the weaver, the inconsistency of the flower, or the difference in the materials used in the design (such as changing the type of fiber).


Sometimes, in order to reduce the weaving time or to save the amount of consumables such as fiber, thread and silk and to reduce the final price of the carpet, the fiber is prepared with a thinner pile and used more with less than its standard value, and as a result we will get a carpet, with a light pile, hollow and less than required, And the durability and strength of the carpet will decrease.

 shear defect

It is a kind of defect in the carpet that results from the use of blunt and completely inappropriate scissors, and here the cutting process is not done correctly, so that one part of the carpet does not have the required softness, and there is no uniformity in the other parts, and scissors and cutting the woven parts of the carpet are among the things which must be done with sufficient precision and skill, and if these things are not observed, the 'face of the rug' will not be uniform.

 One weft for several folds

A high quality carpet is obtained when we produce a carpet with a tuft (below the weft and above the weft) extended after each row of weaving, and in some areas of carpet production, in order to save time and material consumption, after weaving two or three rows and sometimes more than two or three rows of Weft is added to the fabric, which is called "multiple folds of one weft".

Two hands in one rug

If a weaver starts some rug-weaving work himself and then refuses to go on with the work, or for any reason he is unable to finish the work himself, another weaver will carry on weaving, and in fact, here the rug-weaving will be done by two people, in which case you will suffer The aforementioned carpet has a defect called “two hands” in the language of weavers. The reason for this is that the difference can be found in the rows of the carpet due to the difference in the strength of the weavers’ hand strokes, the movements of each weaver’s hand, the power of vision and other procedures such as tying knots, cutting knots, and others.

double standard

 Sometimes, when viewing half of the carpet, we notice that part of the half differs in color compared to the rest of the carpet in our hands, and this difference may be from less than a centimeter to half of the entire carpet.

 Lint weakness

If the pile is cut too much during weaving with scissors, and the height of the pile on the surface of the carpet is so short that the pile cannot be felt by touching the hand, then this carpet will be defective, because the lack of pile and its shortness, reduce the durability and reduce the value of the carpet, and this defect appears sometimes All over the rug and sometimes in different parts of the rug.

 Thread difference

 Thread variation is a defect that appears in the form of thin lines on the surface or back of the carpet, and its color is lighter or darker or not completely consistent with other parts of the surface or back of the carpet. The reason for this defect can be seen from the bad color of the fibers, because the threads have not been given enough care During dyeing and as a result, the outer surface of the fibers did not absorb that dye well, and when it is used in weaving and after finishing work and the weaver cuts it with scissors for trimming, it will become clear that the inner part of the wool has not been dyed and at this stage it shows itself as a thread different from the rest of the threads .

Simple floor

If half of the carpet is not full in terms of design and only one color is used in it, this defect is called "simple floor", and in this case it is said that the carpet does not contain any special art, so it is better to put designs with different patterns, rich and suitable for the market and the customer , And the plain floor carpet is more likely to use only two colors.

 Poor design

 If a woven carpet does not have attractive patterns, does not contain a special message drawn from the ethnic, cultural and historical roots of the weavers, and does not provide satisfaction and good mood to the viewer, then the said carpet is said to be "poorly designed".

 False fabric

 Sometimes due to negligence or improper reading of the designs given by the master weaver, the carpet is made with irreparable defects, for example, the pattern is not woven completely, the apprentice weaver changes the location of the patterns, or the flowers and ribbons lose their true shape and deteriorate, and this is called pseudo-tissue.


We find in some carpets, especially in its edges, some holes, and usually the defects on the sides of the carpet are from one centimeter to 20 centimeters, and in some carpets there are small and large holes, few or many, which are considered among the defects of the carpet that occur during weaving or finishing.

 Loose texture

While weaving the carpet, the knot must be fully tightened and the knot thread must be the same size on the back of the carpet, otherwise the rough knot of the carpet will be considered as a prominent element, and this action first causes the knot to open quickly and then causes damage to the back of the carpet. Thread both ends of the knot exactly and at the same time while weaving.

Finishing defects

 In some areas of the carpet industry, during weaving, the carpets are finished wrongly, which is called hand finishing defects and it is done with scissors, as the height of the piles must not be less than a certain limit (5 mm for silk and 8 mm for wool). Some rows of the rug are less than usual, and at the end they have to cut the other parts of the rug as well.

dyeing defects

The fading of the color of the carpet may have various reasons, usually before dyeing the fibers, it must be soaked in salt so that the wool takes on the color well, if this procedure is not done, the fibers will not take the color well, and this will appear in the texture as well, or another circumstance such as too much light may cause Or washing causes the rug to fade quickly.

 Welded carpet

 If the fluffy weft is beaten too much during the weaving process, the rug is said to be "welded" and can be seen prominently on the back of the fluffy rug.

 color combustion

This term is used when a defect occurs during cleaning, due to improper and incorrect use of acidic substances during washing; The carpet noticeably loses its initial state of wool and color, and this defect is called burn-in, and it is one of the defects that cannot be repaired, which means that the carpet affected by this defect will not be sent to the market.


Carpet weaving techniques have improved and the patterns have become more elaborate since years ago due to the skill of the weavers in the most famous carpet-making areas, and with the progress of the industry, the carpet weaving industry was also developing at the global level, and this is after the production of machine-made carpets entered the field of competition and knotted carpets were produced Machined on a large scale in different regions of the world.. Over the years, production techniques have become more complex, and today most of the carpets in the market are produced by machines in carpet-making workshops, and the finishing processes are also carried out with the highest levels of efficiency, so nowadays, it has become Rugs are highly capable in terms of style and quality, allowing customers to choose the rugs they want among modern designs, in a wide range of different colors and from oriental rugs to western rugs, and from handmade rugs to machine rugs in a wide range of different patterns.

We hope that this article has helped you on this journey to learn how to make carpets from A to Z, from the first thread until the carpet reaches your door to decorate your decorative spaces.



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