Carpet industry in Egypt - Mamluk and Ottoman eras

صناعة السجاد في مصر

Egypt has the first rank in the carpet industry, and it is among the leading countries, followed by other Arab countries such as Lebanon, and its role emerged greatly in the Mamluk era. Egyptians in Damascus and the Ottoman capital to expand their craft, at that time it was intended mostly to meet the needs of the empire and the world market, and was known to be very attractive in terms of design and color, notwithstanding the very few number of Egyptian carpets produced it has a distinctive role It went down in history and the Egyptian carpet or Egyptian rug is known as the best type of carpet in Egypt. It is mostly kept in private museums and major museums in the world due to its originality and high value.

Carpet industry in Egypt

The history of weaving the first Egyptian carpet is not known precisely, but some evidence shows that in the middle of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the sixteenth century, carpet weaving in this country reached its peak, and the art of Egyptian carpets was affected by historical events in different periods, the most important of which was the Mamluk state, and the Ottoman presence in Egypt.

Carpet industry in Egypt in the Mamouk era

At the beginning of the fourteenth century during the Mamluk period, Egyptian carpets were woven with asymmetric knots with a base of wool and fibers of wool, and there is a carpet from the Mamluk period, a unique and exceptional Egyptian silk carpet that was woven in Cairo in the first half of the sixteenth century and is preserved Now in the Vienna Museum of Fine Arts.

Characteristics of Mamluk carpets

1. The finest and rare types of Egyptian carpets of all time. Carpet weaving in the Mamluk era includes the period that preceded the presence of the Ottomans in Egypt in 1517. This era, which was characterized by the production of the most beautiful Egyptian carpets, which extends from the fifteenth to the early sixteenth century, was known as The pinnacle of Islamic art in Egypt.
2. In weaving this Egyptian carpet, a palette of three colors was used including blue, red and green, which have symmetrical natural shapes, and the use of simple geometric shapes that are repeated in Egyptian carpets in the Mamluk era is one of the signs of Egyptian carpets in this particular period.
3. Mamluk carpets have unique features such as geometric motifs. A person named Kurt Erdmann classified the arrangement of Mamluk carpets and divided them into three main groups based on the main background:

    1. The first group

    The main square background has a small square design at each of the four corners, like the pattern of the rug in the Monroepolitan Museum of Art, whose weaving dates from the late 15th and early 16th centuries.

    2. The second group

    The main rectangular background consisting of a central element next to a rectangular design, often consisting of 2, 3, or 5 medallions with reflective designs for the central element, the best example of this group is now available at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.

    3. The third group

    The large tapestry with the main background is divided into several sections and medallions, and the best example of this group is also available at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

    Most Mamluk carpets can be woven with a single central thread starting from the center of the rug. This central thread is characterized by fused outer edges or rectangular panels that are often divided into triangular shapes and reflect a geometric design. In some cases, these rectangles contain cypresses, palm trees, and umbrella-shaped leaves. There are many studies on the Egyptian Mamluk carpets, but the researchers have not yet agreed on the exact time of its creation. The quality of carpets produced in Tabriz is superior to that of carpets produced in Cairo.

    The Egyptian carpet industry in the Ottoman era

    During the sixteenth century, due to the Ottoman presence, carpets were woven in Egypt by Cairo weavers in a famous style, and if you look carefully at the carpets, you can see the influence of Turkish and Persian carpet designs in Egyptian carpets .

    Characteristics of Ottoman carpets

    1. Unlike the Egyptian carpets of the Mamluk period, the Ottoman carpets were a mixture of colors but with designs similar to the symmetrical shapes found in the Egyptian carpets of the Mamluk period
    2. In the carpets of the Ottoman period, tree leaves, palm trees, and necklaces were used unified with motifs of tulips, rubies, cloves, and pomegranates.
    3. Carpet weaving artists used Turkish knots instead of Persian knots to create a special design, and it is interesting to know that these designs reflect the checkered history of Egypt that emerged among the patterns of these carpets.

      But in the nineteenth century, coinciding with the outbreak of World War I, the carpet industry declined in Egypt due to the decline in demand in the global market, and this industry was revived later in the fifties of the last century with the reproductionof traditional Persian carpets that took their designs from cities such as Isfahan, Kashan and Kerman Tabriz and the classic designs of this era were in great demand, and the reason for the prosperity of carpet weaving in Egypt during this period was not only the end of World War II, but also the focus of many companies on weaving authentic Egyptian carpets, and these companies employed thousands of weavers to weave Egyptian rugs and carpets In the best possible way, popular ornamental patterns were still favored by the world market until the 1970s, carpet weaving flourished in Egypt, Egyptian weavers and artists reproduced oriental motifs from Iran and India and sold them on world markets, this style of carpet weaving is still welcomed and demanded Interior designers.

      You can also shop carpets online and buy what matches your sofa decor and luxurious furniture in your home through Wift Carpets , the leading carpet store in the world of furnishings.


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