Carpet Design: What language do handmade carpets speak?


Carpet Design: What language do handmade carpets speak?

The world of carpet design and patterns is not confined to one region, one country, and one culture, but rather a world of diverse cultures and traditions, each of which in some way comes to the fore in the vast landscape of carpets. Carpet patterns, designs, and styles not only decorate homes and halls, but also tell stories. And the national and epic myths of each nation and include the art, culture, traditions and customs of that region. It can be said that the patterns and designs of the carpet are the expressive language of the carpet and without it the carpet is just a dead piece!

In this article, we will get to know closely the most famous designs, patterns and styles of carpets throughout the ages, and the stories behind each design and pattern..

carpet designs

Traditional designs are a set of specific elements or motifs that make up the look and feel of a rug. In principle, traditional design consists of designs and images that represent the culture, customs, and traditions common to all society. These designs, like many other instances of civilization, change and evolve over time and change in The culture and customs of that society, and take on a new face that includes the old traditions as well, and the traditional design has a spiritual and practical side, for both the appearance and the decorative side, from a spiritual point of view, it includes all the symbols and signs that express a certain concept and are basically part of the culture and traditions of the society, and from the point of view Externally, it reveals artistic beauty and rich taste. The designer artist who uses the art of design and the details in it leaves a very beautiful and charming effect.

Here are the most important designs used by weavers throughout the ages in designing their beautiful carpets:

Oriental carpets

Oriental-style carpets for many years occupied a prominent place in Western decoration, and kings, princes, and high-ranking officials raced to acquire this authentic carpet, whether it was from Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, or China. The oriental carpet carries within it a thousand-year-old experience and provides interior decorations with a beautiful and timeless touch.

In the East, the carpet is considered one of the most beautiful and attractive forms of artistic expression, it occupies a very special place in interior designs, it is often luxurious and always woven with high quality, it is used with pride in oriental residences where it represents much more than a simple decorative piece, because the carpet Oriental is the center of family life and the point of welcoming guests. The main patterns of traditional oriental carpets tend to be geometric or natural symbols, especially in the region of their manufacture. The patterns used and the final combinations are never without meaning. .

The oriental rug is the safe bet par excellence both in terms of style and quality of workmanship, and it is one of those timeless items that break free from modern fashions and trends to last, and your oriental rugs can become an iconic piece that brings contrast to your decor.

Antique carpet

Antique rug means "old rug", this type of rug means for collectors of old rugs great value, they are not looking for new designs but looking for old classic rugs that have lived for a long time and will continue to do so, these classic rugs are made of the finest materials, which can It stands up to any test that comes its way, it can be said that not every old carpet is necessarily antique but every antique carpet, is definitely an old carpet, for example if there is a 15 year old carpet it can be old, but it will not be as antique as an old carpet 150 years old!

For some time, the vintage trend has been in vogue, because in this world where consumption is increasingly fast, the tradition and continuity of antiquity is an aesthetic trend that gives peace and familiarity, and in a room, an antique rug brings tranquility and at the same time is an exciting design element. Accordingly, the The antique look rug is a real eye-catcher in decor, bringing contrast to any dull room.

Adding an antique carpet helps add charm to the modern interior decoration, and the antique carpet can accentuate the curves and geometric shapes of modern furniture in order to break the monotony and add warmth and originality. Adopting an antique carpet adds consistency to the modern interior design, which is often very smooth and cold.

Antique carpets come above all from traditional cultures, directly from the Near East, and so we often find them including kilims, these carpets without velvet, embroidered rather than using knots, and therefore used to decorate walls and floors, thanks to a particularly flexible texture.

Baroque carpets

Baroque is an artistic movement that originated in Italy in cities such as Rome, Venice and Florence since the mid-sixteenth century and ended in the mid-eighteenth century. Italy to the major European countries.

Baroque style is very special, but it is also one of the decorative styles that can completely improve the interior design and give it an unparalleled character. their bedroom, living room, or furniture.

Baroque carpets are clearly distinguished from others by their noble, distinctive and elegant graphics with their elegant and original side, this Baroque carpet embodies the beauty and originality of the ancient era, and this type of carpet is suitable for neutral decor, and Baroque carpets may be used in decorative details with the aim of creating a more authentic interior design, It is welcomed everywhere in the living room and even in the bedrooms, because it is in fact synonymous with luxury, especially if you focus on coordination, as this carpet should blend harmoniously with your home, and the carpet should not be too small or too large.

The right material can then be chosen, as it must be easy to maintain and comfortable, and then there is the color criterion, with a wide range of color palette in baroque carpets, choose the palette that matches the rest of the decorative elements of the room, including furniture, curtains, etc., and can Whether the carpet is sober, classic, or colorful and warm, geometric patterns are a major feature of baroque carpets, and far from the abstract designs of contemporary and always timeless culture, the baroque carpet is your ally to create a modern original decor.


Contemporary style carpets

Contemporary rugs are modern designs that can be "soft" or "hard" depending on their patterns and colors. They are more Western in their designs and are more suitable for new, informal homes. Contemporary rugs are generally characterized by stark contrasts, and are popular for geometric shapes, free form, or abstract elements. 1

Contemporary carpets, most often, are carpets designed in a simple way that allows you to obtain a contemporary atmosphere in the home. Among the so-called designer carpets, you can, for example, find carpets of various and elegant colors. The contemporary carpet adapts to today's taste, whether it has shapes Linear, round or abstract, they will always take their place in the decor.

And the contemporary style of decoration is a simple and modern style, and to obtain a decoration of this type, plan simple and unified furniture, and spaces so as not to over-decorate your room with a choice of one or two main colors, and your contemporary carpet may be the reason behind giving the decor a contemporary effect, it can The rug is used to pair with the color of one of the decor elements and then accentuate it. The very trendy colors that are often found in this interior style are beige and gray. Creamy white and dark gray are also very popular, due to their simplicity and ease of pairing with other colors.

Contemporary carpet design is not from a particular era, it is the style of the moment. Contemporary carpets usually display a unique texture to accentuate depth in a room. Much like modern design, contemporary is a simple approach that does not use crowded patterns, but unlike modern styles it usually uses more colors. Neutral To make the room look more spacious, bright colors can be used to attract attention, such as the bright yellow pillows on the white sofa.

modern (modern) carpets

Modern design in a home means clean lines, simple approaches (no clutter, clusters or crowded patterns), pairing wood floors and furniture with elegant materials, modern rugs are rugs with patterns from the last few decades, lines and shapes found in modern design usually lengthen the room, With arcs, curves, triangles and slashes.

Contemporary or modern rug can be plain or patterned, modern rugs are most often original, bright or pastel color rugs, and the most common patterns are geometric, striped, or reminiscent of different regions of the world, and these patterns allow the rug to have its own character special to become an essential element of decoration.

Modern style and rugs are very popular these days, and this trend is not surprising given the wide variety of styles and patterns that offer an unlimited range of possibilities, the modern rug is able to breathe life into any room and give a personal touch to your home.

Scandinavian style rugs

The Scandinavian rug remains an ideal choice for a stylish and comfortable atmosphere, in fact, the Scandinavian rug elegantly combines typical Nordic tones with fresh decorative combinations.

Scandinavian decor has been very trendy in recent years, and it does not intend to fade in the near time. The main elements of this decor are simple and elegant patterns and soft materials that will add comfort and design to your home. We find all these characteristics with the Scandinavian carpet, which is the central element in your room. .

The Scandinavian rug, with its original patterns, can emphasize the comfortable style of your room, and in terms of design, there are wide options available such as herringbone design, simple and clean lines, geometric patterns, curves..etc., so if you are looking for an elegant and innovative floor rug, it can be The Scandinavian rug is the ideal choice, depending on the desired style and atmosphere, as these rugs from Northern Europe are in keeping with the Nordic furniture and its wood accents, and the classic and warm atmosphere can easily be chosen thanks to the Scandinavian rug with warm colors and floral motifs, in order to bring the interior decoration, especially In the living room or dining room, the authentic rustic European decor Scandinavian rugs have a beautiful design effect with its botanical and rustic motifs.


carpet patterns

Life is made up of symbols and they have been understood by weavers and designers throughout the ages. In fact, carpet patterns always convey a story told by the person who woven them or those who designed them. The meaning of these elegantly painted patterns is passed down from generation to generation. This is also one of the reasons why oriental carpets enjoy With international fame, as the interweaving of patterns reveals the beauty of the art in these carpets, here are some of the most important carpet patterns that reveal the encrypted messages in this art:

Herati style

Herati rugs are well known among the various styles of Persian rugs. Rather than originating from a specific region, this rug is categorized by its designs and patterns. Herati rugs have a distinct aesthetic that can be discerned from any distance. The flawless and detailed designs of this rug have become famous in the carpet market. Throughout the ages.

Herati is a geometric base that usually features a single flower with four leaves repeated across the rug. This stylized flower is surrounded by diamonds, with serrated leaves along each side. It is often used as a motif in rug designs. From the Caspian region, the 'leaf' may represent a fish. This pattern originated Somewhere around the end of the fifteenth century in northwestern Afghanistan in the city of Herat.

Herati rugs can be classified as slightly similar to Persian rugs whose designs he inherited, examples of which are the Tabriz rugs and Bejar rugs.. These rugs appeared in the western market somewhere in the early 19th century.

There is a striking diversity in the colors used and the geometric patterns in the rug, but the theme remains the same, and the colors used in Herati are vibrant and rich, and the designs pop due to the vibrant and wonderful effect of tone throughout the rug, and the colors used in this rug are usually shades Of ivory, blue, red and golden yellow.

botte style

One of the earliest patterns, a stylized floral or floral pattern that evolved over several centuries into a drop-shaped mass of swirling plants with a greatly curved tip, a shape whose name means "bush" in Persian, had adorned the turbans of the Safavid Shahs since the time of the Shah. Abbas I, and throughout the Safavid period, distinguished kings with turbans adorned in this lavish style with diamonds and emeralds.

Traditionally, the putih pattern was used in the design of high-quality hand-woven Persian tapestry made of silk and wool. From the 1500s, the putih pattern traveled the Silk Road and was soon adopted by the rest of the carpet-producing countries of Asia, especially the Indian subcontinent. In India, this pattern is woven On carpets of goat wool (cashmere), the potet pattern thus became the "cashmere pattern", and in the 17th century, an Indian company exported this fabric to Europe where it was picked up at European courts as a symbol of exoticism, luxury and rarity, and the potet pattern became so popular in Europe that That the masters of production in the eastern countries struggled to provide it, so the western manufacturers resumed making this pattern, among them the factories of England and Scotland..

The putih pattern can be found in Indian, Turkmen, Persian, and Caucasian carpets, and in almost every different type of rug. The origin of the motif varies from region to region, from the resemblance to birds, to the resemblance to plants, leaves, and even fruit.

Shah Abbas style

Shah Abbas pattern is one of the common designs and patterns woven into hand-woven carpets in different regions of Iran, it is very beautiful and unique, it is interesting that this design is different in every city in Iran, for example Shah Abbas design is woven in Tabriz using a completely different design.

Since the use of the Shah Abbas pattern dates back to the directives of Shah Abbas, we find that this pattern is related to the Safavid period and the time of the Safavid rule of Shah Abbas. It is also necessary to know that a group of researchers and archaeologists believe that the first carpet of Shah Abbas was hung during the Safavid era and in this way was recorded This design and pattern is in the name of Shah Abbas, and it was famous in the carpets of Kishan, Isfahan, Mashhad, and Nin, as well as in carpets that copy the Persian style in the rest of Asia, such as India, China, and Pakistan.

Göl pattern

Göl means flower in Persian, and this pattern is well known in Afghan and Turkmen carpets, where dark tones are widely used. Colored in blue and beige, it differs from the Gül pattern.

Gül pattern

This medallion, often octagonal, often somewhat angular, medallion-like pattern is typical of traditional handwoven carpets from Central and West Asia, and is often repeated in Turkmen textiles to form the pattern in the main field, and on another , The Gol pattern was known historically in the West as elephant foot motifs, and other Western speculations believe that the Gol pattern was a drawing of a round Turkmen tent, with lines between the tents representing irrigation canals, or that the emblem was a totem bird, and in fact, none of these Descriptions have no basis in textile tradition or oriental culture. 1

Different Turkmen tribes have traditionally woven a variety of gul patterns, some of them of ancient design, but gul patterns were often used by more than one tribe, and by non-Turkmen weavers as well.

claw pattern (dyrnak)

It is a Turkish pattern, made by the Yumut tribe, a Turkmen tribe living in West and Central Asia. The pattern has well-drawn curved leaf borders and panels of an eagle design element at both ends, and often also contains details in the larger göl pattern. It is considered a pattern Very ancient and sometimes occurs in a simple style and in more complex forms.


carpet decorations

Just like patterns and designs, carpet motifs are inspired by nature, history and myths, and in fact, in order to search for the origin of motifs in carpets, we must search for the origin of the carpet in the life of the Bedouins or early weavers, before it finds its way to villages and cities, if the weavers design beautiful motifs from The heart of the nature surrounding them, by making thousands, even millions of knots.., the following are some of the most important and famous motifs in carpets throughout the ages:

Tree of the life

The tree of life is one of the widespread Persian carpet motifs, and in fact, it is reproduced by all the cities in which craftsmen weave carpets, to express a sense of respect and glorification of life.

Experts consider that the main origin of the tree design is the village of Ravir Kerman (in southeastern Iran). In the imagination of these villagers who live in a harsh and dry environment, which has always lacked abundance, wealth, green pastures, lively gardens, and flowing water, so they tried to revive what they had always dreamed of. in their carpets.

The tree of life not only symbolizes fertility but also continuity, especially the connection between two worlds, when you observe this motif closely, you will realize that the roots are buried in the ground and the top of the tree is in the clouds, this means that the tree of life represents the connection between the earthly and what is It is heavenly, which is why, with good reason, we find these motifs on Persian prayer rugs.

This carpet is also dedicated to weddings, in this case, the tree of life is crowned with a couple of birds, this symbolizes union, and handmade Persian carpets, on which these motifs are woven, are always very attractive and indescribably beautiful, and these trees are woven in an abstract or Realistic on carpets, sometimes a single tree, sometimes several, sometimes with human, animal and plant motifs, the types of trees used in the tree design can be cypress, pine, willow and all kinds of trees with branches, flowers and fruits found in nature.

Engraved decorations (Afshan)

In these motifs leaves, flowers, birds and animals are carved on the ground as material for the carpet. Flowers and leaves are one of the main motifs of this decoration. Although they are scattered separately in the background of the carpet, the symmetry and harmony of the colors make them appear as parts of a beautiful ensemble.

The embossed pattern is one of the most famous designs of handwoven Persian rugs and carpets, which is widely used in carpet weaving, in the past, the most famous design of Persian carpets was the design of bergamot fruits, and this design was a large bergamot placed in the center of the rug and surrounded by small flowers It is still popular with many rug lovers, and in the following years, carpet and rug designers decided to remove the bergamot from the middle of the rug, creating a patterned design, where flowers scatter across the rug and no longer use the central bergamot.

The decoration in this design is engraved with flowers tied together, spiral branches of a plant, bouquets of flowers, some animals, or broken lines.

Tree decorations

Branches and leaves form the basis of Persian carpet design. Therefore, in designs known as tree designs, efforts are made to maintain the great similarity that exists in relation to the motifs of nature. In many tree designs, the main motif consists of small and large trees and shrubs, which in most cases are individual. In some cases it is combined with other components, and the most important tree designs and patterns include: animal tree or animal tree, botanical tree or water feature tree, bergamot tree, cypress tree, and potted tree.

In the tree design, the tree plays a central and original role. The tree used in this type of design and pattern is not of the same type and size, but exists in different types and sizes. Sometimes the text of the tree surrounds the carpet. In some cases, the tree design has branches, leaves, and fruits. In some cases It has no fruit, sometimes we see a tree inside the pot, some designs have no pot, sometimes tree designs may include one tree and sometimes several trees can be put together.

Turkmen or Bukhara ornament

In terms of geometry and broken lines, the motifs of Turkmen carpets are similar to the designs of the Bedouins, which are woven from imagination and without a plan. There are many sub-motifs of this category. The Turkmen nomads settled in an area from Afghanistan to the borders of Iran and along Turkestan from the distant past, and this includes The decoration has many patterns, including the flower box design. This design belongs to the Jafriya clan. It is inspired by a bird that lived on the shores of the Caspian Sea. Turkmens respect this bird very much and consider it one of the inspirations for their traditional designs. The flower basket pattern is very repetitive and is used throughout the carpet. Its shape is inspired by the eyes, nose and mouth of the human face.

In addition, the Turkmen ornament is also known as the eagle pattern, which is another Turkmen pattern that belongs to the Ja`fari clan. This painting shows the image of Tughril the Seljuk, who defeated Masoud al-Ghaznawi in 432 AH and entered Nishapur. In this design, Tughril shows a trained eagle in his right hand and a naked sword in his hand. His other hand, in addition to showing Tughril and his courage, this design also evokes the image of the boundless plains, which were a place for the Turkmen who were nomadic, and all the images in the Turkmen design show their culture and past history, and this is one of the manifestations of the beauty of these motifs in carpets.

Bud decorations

Bud motifs are inspired by the maze of plants, animals, trees and landscape mapping, the main shape of this design is circular branches between leaves, these branches are abstractions of tree design, Bud motifs have many types and this design is usually repeated in most shapes, but this design is prevalent in some Carpets, and the most famous types of flower motifs are the motifs that resemble the body of the mythical dragon and snake, so they are also often known by the same name.

In this style, the decoration is in the form of a plant with twisted stems, and the advantage of this design is that its beginning and end cannot be recognized, and it is used in Islamic designs and patterns on a large scale, which are used in painting, inscription design, carpets, and other arts, and sometimes it is also referred to as In the name of design or "Islamic decoration".

Although the bud pattern has a very long history and dates back to ancient times, the heyday and flourishing of this design can be seen in the Islamic period, which in other words was an advanced form of this design and decorative type.

During the Sasanian era, plant designs were mostly used in gypsum works, and after the Muslims conquered the eastern Roman regions and Iranian lands, the two arts were combined to form a new Islamic art, and Muslims could not use animal designs because of the Sharia prohibition of this type of depiction, so they used designs and patterns Botanical in their art and architecture, Islamic design was predominantly in the form of floral patterns, In the 9th century, a design that evolved over time became known as bud design, and reached its zenith and flourishing, The use of bud motifs in text and borders of carpets and rugs remaining from the 9th century AD is noted in abundance, which indicates the essential role and importance of bud design at the time.

Hunting ground motif

The background of the hunting ground design is a carpet designed in the form of a forest or orchard with images of animals such as elk, deer, rabbits and a lot of wild animals printed on it, and it may or may not contain a hunter image, and the general outline of the hunting ground is the flora and fauna of the forest, and the image shows the process of hunting animals .

The main basis for this group of decorations is to display hunting scenes and hunting areas, so in different parts of the design, the knight hunts deer or other animals with a tool such as a bow and arrow or a spear, and the sub-groups of this design are: hunting grounds, trees, etc., and indicate the density and types of plants This is despite the fact that precipitation on these pastures was high in the past and the weather was mild and favorable for plant growth.

According to historical evidence and documents, during the Achaemenid era, the gardens and plains were green and many kinds of animals lived in them. At that time, the Achaemenids believed that these gardens and meadows were sacred and they respected them very much. The Achaemenids built pastures, on which many events and tours took place Hunting, and the hunting ground was considered sacred because they earned their livelihood from it, and it may have been sacred as well, because the Achaemenid kings and nobles cared about hunting in the pastures, and this kind of belief of the people at that time made this tradition open for itself a place among the carpet decorations, and it remained in place for many years, and it is now in our hands.

Bustan decorations (raised flowers)

The first sparks of the production of distinguished flower carpets began in the city of Isfahan in the hands of Mr. Ali Khodadaday, and Ali Khodaday began weaving this type of carpet in 1356, and the result of this Isfahani artist’s ten years of effort was a carpet known as the Bustan, and the Bustan carpet and the works of other artists in Persia automated carpet manufacturers to start mass production of this type of carpet, and in this way the distinctive raised flower carpet entered the field of carpet weaving.

The most important feature of the distinguished flower carpet is its boundless beauty and elegance, and the carpet with raised flowers is very eye-catching, and as the name suggests (raised flowers), some of the motifs on the carpet have a higher height than the surface of the carpet, or in other words, these motifs are prominent, and evoke these flowering hills Actually the same bright colors in the surface, that's why the embossed flower rug is also called 3D rug.

flower decorations

The flower design is a mixture of authentic Iranian designs with natural flowers, especially red flowers. In this type of carpet, strong and bright colors are used, especially red colors. The sub-groups of this design are rose flower, bigar flower, tangerine flower, flower bouquet, and nightingale flower.

There are many differences of opinion about the origin of the flower pattern motifs, and some believe that the natural images of this design were formed in the Safavid era, and became known among Iranians 150 years ago during the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah, when the hand-woven carpet fabric suddenly grew, and some evidence shows that the motifs The flower dates back to the Timurid period, and some people presented miniatures inspired by the rose, and some believe that there were fabrics in the time of the Buyid state that were designed in this way, but all this is limited to the theory and the exact date of the origin of this design is not available.

Floral pattern designs and motifs are among those motifs that have gained a lot of fans, the pattern of this design is inspired by natural flowers and mesmerizes the viewer with the flowers used to compose this pattern, this design is so beautiful, natural and artistic that it seems as if every carpet flower is arranged and placed on the carpet in a way natural.

fish decorations

The fish design is one of the oldest and most common Persian carpet designs, this design is often in the form of a sheath and the weaver repeats the same pattern throughout the length and width of the rug, in this design, a diamond-shaped pool can be seen with four fish leaves around it, the fish design is known by various names in Different parts of Iran, and the most important types: Herati fish, Farhan fish, bee fish, Kurdistan fish and small fish.

Various theories have been put forward about the history and origin of this design, and some groups attribute its initial design to the Safavid era and sometimes to the Mughal era. to the limits.

Therefore, fish motifs either originated in Herat or were created during the period when Herat was the artistic center of Iran, that is, during the Timurid period (Herat was considered one of the cities of Iran and Khorasan Province until 1857), and the design is from eastern Iran, but its history is unknown. Exactly, and the oldest types of fish carpets date back to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries AD.

Shah Abbas decorations

It is a carpet with decorations of verses from the Qur’an woven in the upper half of it, and its general shape resembles the mihrab pattern, and the natural dimensions of this carpet are used in a way that makes the person pray on it easily. In this design, no part of the longitudinal parts of the carpet is repeated or compared.

Mihrab decorations

Mihrab motifs and the role of materials involved in them vary greatly according to the cultural and artistic contexts among the tribes that weave carpets, for example, mihrab carpets in the Caucasus are geometric and angular, with straight and broken lines, sometimes with inscriptions, and also have animal motifs, and in Baluchi, Afghani and Turkestan mihrab designs Animal and human motifs are generally not used, and these rugs are painted with a "red background in green".

frame decorations

Frame decorations are carpet designs in which half of the carpet is divided into polygonal frames and patterns (square, rectangular, rhombic) with regular divisions, and each frame has a separate and independent design from the other frames, and inside each frame is decorated with different flowers and leaves, and the feature of these frames is Its simplicity in design and its repetition in half of the carpet, and among the types of structural plans, we can refer to the designs of the Quranic frame, the frame (garden or majlis), the Qamdani frame, etc.

Collective decorations

The basis of the work in designing this type of decoration was to combine two or more designs, and the goal of the carpet designer is to create a different and new design within the framework of the original design, and for this purpose he uses small and large drawings and different designs side by side, and these designs do not follow a specific pattern and color scheme, Its selection varies according to the opinion of the carpet designer.

The motifs of this group of carpets were created over time and by incorporating different motifs and designs, and dozens and even hundreds of their types can be seen in different regions of Iran specifically, and different types of combined designs can be mentioned, such as a combination of embossed pattern and bergamot, and a compact bouquet of flowers , geometric combination, etc.



There is no end to talking about the types of designs, patterns and decorations in carpets, and one can talk for hours about ancient designs before Islam and Islamic models after Islam, and modern and modern designs. The distant past, cultures, values, social and economic customs, collective imagination, etc.. Carpet patterns, designs and motifs were widely used in various fields such as decoration, clothing design and architecture.

Carpet researchers believe that Bedouin life did not change much until a few decades ago and that the symbols were understood, but successive developments severed the connection between today and the past. .







3 comments “Carpet Design: What language do handmade carpets speak?


هل هنا کتاب او موقع خاص للسجاد الیدوی عند البلدان العربیه؟ من العراق و السوریا و مصر و ….

November 9, 2023 at 05:45am

هل هنا کتاب او موقع خاص للسجاد الیدوی عند البلدان العربیه؟ من العراق و الگوریتم و مصر و ….

November 9, 2023 at 05:44am
Alfred : que pensez vous des tapis suivants

September 12, 2023 at 20:37pm

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